در پژوهش حاضر اطلس زبانی منطقۀ کوهبنان، به عنوان اولین اطلس زبانی ثبت شده در سازمان میراث فرهنگی استان کرمان، معرفی شده است. بر این اساس توزیع جغرافیایی متغیر های واجی و واژگانی منطقه کوهبنان مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند و با توجه به تفاوتهای موجود در گویش سی منطقۀ مورد بررسی، اطلس زبانی مناطق مورد نظر رسم شده است. بررسی متغیرهای واجی، در قالب متغیرهای واکه ای، متغیرهای همخوانی و متغیرهای مربوط به ساخت هجا و نیز متغیرهای واژگانی نشان می دهد که گویش مناطق مورد بررسی دارای ویژ گی های تمایز دهنده ای است. اطلس زبانی منطقه نیز نشان دهندۀ آن است که به جهت وجود تفاوت در رفتار زبانی گویشوران دو منطقۀ کوهبنان و خرمدشت، باید قائل به وجود دو لهجۀ متفاوت در این مناطق شد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Kuhbanan Phonetic Atlas; the first linguistic Atlas of Kerman Province
There are both social and geographical differences among dialects of every country. Finding linguistics boundaries, drawing linguistics maps and preparing linguistics Atlases are the most important activities in geographical linguistics. This study intends to introduce the Kuhbanan linguistics Atlas as the first linguistic Atlas of Kerman Province. This Atlas includes the distribution of some Persian linguistics variables of Kuhbanani dialect spoken in Kuhbanan and Khoramdasht regions in Kerman Province. The main purpose is to introduce the linguistic atlases based on the differences of Kuhbanani dialect in these two regions. However, The geographical distribution of some Middle Persian linguistic variables observed in these two regions under investigation also is displayed, too.
As to the methodology of this research, at first, the guide linguistic variables as well as the main one were determined by the free speech and interview of upper 55 years old, uneducated male and female Kuhbanani speakers of 30 villages. Afterwards, a questionnaire and lexical list have been provided and carried out. At last, based on the linguistic data collected, the differences and similarities observed in the distribution of the relevant linguistic variables as well as some remnants of Middle Persian variables in Kuhbanani dialect have been shown through isoglosses on linguistic atlases. GIS software was used to specify the exact area of each linguistic variable and to draw the linguistic Atlases and isoglosses. In this study, only one example from every phonological process and 13 maps from linguistics atlas are presented.
Kuhbanan Atlas includes some data in Phonological (vowels, consonants & syllable structure) and lexical processes. In this study, only phonological processes are investigated and lexical processes ignored due to the capacity of the article. Phonological variables in the corpus can be divided into three categories of vowels, consonants & syllable structure variables based on their nature and manner of articulation.Vowel variables are investigated by dividing them into processes such as vowel lowering, vowel raising, vowel backing, vowel fronting, monophtoungization of diphtounge vowels, diphtoungization of monophtounge and Middle Persian vowel retention. Consonant variables too, are investigated by dividing them into processes such as consonant deletion, Insertion, nasalization and metathesis. Syllabic structure processes such as insertion and deletion of syllable are studied in the last part of the article. Because of the capacity of the article; Only 14 maps from linguistics atlas are selected. Selection of maps is organized in a way that every map presents a phonological process.
The investigation of linguistic variables indicates that linguistic items are extensively used in a similar way in these two regions; however, because of some differences in the linguistic behavior of Kuhbanani speakers, some dialect differences can certainly be identified in Kuhbanani dialect spoken in Kuhbanan and Khoramdasht regions, referred to as Kuhbanani and Khoramdashti accents, respectively. The speech of Khoramdashti speakers in Khoramdasht region is more similar to Yazdi dialect, because this region is closely near to the boundary of Kerman and Yazd provinces, while Kuhbanani speakers in Kuhbanan region use linguistic items more similar to Kermani dialect. We come to conclusion that middle Persian linguistic features such as vowel raising and vowel lowering and consonant deletion, especially nasal consonant can considerably be observed in these two regions. Furthermore, vowel backing , vowel fronting , monophtoungization of diphtounge vowels , diphtoungization of monophtounge vowels and change of consonant can be observed in Kuhbanani dialect , spoken in Kuhbanan and Khoramdasht regions as well .Furthermore, there are some sign of Middle Persian vowel and consonant retention in this region though they are few.