تکرار پدیده ای زبانی است که در دو نوع کامل و ناقص از سوی زبان شناسان بررسی شده است. این پژوهش، به تحلیل صوری و معنایی فرایند تکرار کامل در زبان فارسی میپردازد. در این راستا، از دیدگاه های مطرح در این فرایند به ویژه اینکلاس و زول (2005) و ریگر (1998) بهره برده ام. تکرار کامل، از حیث صوری، به دو نوع ناافزوده و افزوده (میانی و پایانی) دسته بندی شده است. و از حیث معنایی، مفاهیمی که در ساختهای تکراری حاصل می شوند، مدّنظر است. نتایج حاصل از این بررسی نشان می دهد که در برخی واژه های مکرر، معنایی اصطلاحی/ مجازی ایجاد می شود که کاملاً متفاوت با معنای عناصر تکرارشونده و مغایر با دیدگاه اینکلاس و زول است. از حیث ویژگی های معنایی، مفهوم کثرت از بسامد بالایی برخوردار است. بررسی الگو ها به لحاظ ساختار و معنا نشان می دهد که نحوة ترکیب در الگو ها موجب تغییر صورت و معنا در این فرایند می شود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Formal and Semantic Analysis of Total Reduplication in Persian
Repetition is a lingual phenomenon which in various languages and in different frames, has been studied. The whole or part of the base is repeated in this process. Hence, in Farsi language, repetition is classified by two parts, total and partial. When the base is repeated perfectly, it is called total reduplication and if some part of the base will be repeated, it is called partial reduplication (Shaghaghi, 2000: 525). Merely, in this research we consider the total reduplication.
Total reduplication is a process which is made by repetition of one base or adding one functional morpheme structure. This process is divided by two kinds of proper total reduplication and added perfect repetition (middle and final). Proper total reduplication, is just made by the base. Whereas, in the total reduplication, in addition two repetitive base and functional morpheme consider in structure which in two base or after the second base are placed,( Shaghaghi, 2012:99). Moravcsik (1978) applies this repetition as increase, decrease, plural and so on. Two main approaches are obvious in the Repetitive factor: To copy of phonemic and to repeat semantic and inflectional specifications. The first approach has been introduced by Marantz (1982) which is a basically phonemic approach, but the second approach has been considered by Inkelas and Zoll (2005) which is inflectional. By view of this suggestion, it is important and it is like semantics. The pattern by Inkelas and Zoll in Morphological Doubling consist of ‟the set of semantic specifications and some added meaning” (Inkelas & Zoll: 6-7) .In order to have semantic concordance, Inklas and Zoll (2005) anticipate the existence of allomorphs from one root which are identical by semantic (Inkelas & Zoll: 9-10).
Riger (1998) believes that in various languages, repetition mostly reflects such concepts like decrease, disorder, disdain, plural, intensity, childhood, affection, perfection and continuation and he presents these concepts by function of two factors of iconicity and semantic spreading.
3. Data Analysis
The total reduplication process is called a group of compound words which is made by adding functional morpheme or base repetition and it is divided to proper total reduplication and added perfect repetition (Shaghaghi, 2012:99). The proper total reduplication only is made by base repetition. It belongs to the different topics like noun, adjective, adverb, sound, sound noun, group and sentence and concepts such as, intensity, stress, increase, abundance, continuation, count lessness or gender. They are adding to the base and sometimes alter the meaning and topic. Some repetitive pattern will not express the new meaning, rather they must be adjusted each other in order to show the new meaning. Sometimes it is gathered in figurative meaning and sometimes they are in contrast. In onomatopoeias both part do not have meaning. But almost express the repetition concepts. In Onomatopoeias solely both part have no meaning, but almost one conveys the repetition concepts. In the total reduplication, in addition two based repetition functional morpheme has a role in structure where is seen between two bases or after the second base attention to functional morpheme place, this process could be divided by the middle and the end. But if the functional morpheme will be lied between two bases, we call it the middle perfect repetition which makes novel words by proposition and middle morpheme and based repetition. In this process, some of the repetitive words from the first to the end has figurative meaning. These repetitive words not only could have alteration in output of semantic change, rather functional morpheme, but also could find the different meaning in composition of consequence.
But, at the end, added perfect repetition, frequently element lies after the base and output leads to the derivational morpheme. This process is made by adding the suffix to the second base which completes the particular meaning to the repetitive word. Some of these words are special to the colloquial and maternal style.
At the recent research, the apparent analysis and repetitive semantic process were accomplished in Persian language. Whatever is gained from the recent research data shows that in this process, Persian language has great varieties. It means that, in this process, Persian language has excessive varieties because of several meanings and structures, and possessing various kinds. Generally, at the proper total reduplication, the category of repetitive words somehow is different from the base topic and some repetitive words could not convey the novel meaning. And also, in some words, the figurative meaning is inferred. Inkelas and Zoll maintain the morpheme which leads to the root and they are identical which could be seen in Persian, too. They are different from the phoneme, but in semantic, they have concordance, like, washout, building, at the proper total reduplication according to the base, meaning of continuation, excess, intensity, plurality, gradation, distribution, condition, disorder and worriment is remarked. In Onomatopoeias, both parts have no meaning, but suggest the repetition concepts in closeness.
By virtue of proposition and middle morpheme in perfect end repetition and repetition base, the new words are made, this pattern influences the multitude of nouns, adjectives and adverbs. The result meaning by the pattern could convey sequence, encounter, continuation, increase, interference, variety, rareness, connection, disorder, intensity, stress, condition, gradation, diminution, weakening, causing to love. The study of this process as a structure and semantic, reveals that the manner of combination in patterns causes some alteration in the process of meaning and surface.